Ancient Chinese Kilns or kiln sites were distributed over a large area of China.
The following list shows over 140 ancient kilns according to the province they are located in. Currently, over two hundred kilns have been identified from the Song dynasty until today.
These above kiln numbers include so-called kiln systems, but do not count individual kiln sites. Some kiln systems are known to have included dozens, some even hundreds of individual kiln sites, respectively. Some were spread over very large areas.
The main kiln would usually be the kiln whose products were well-known, and other kilns in the vicinity would be producing the same or similar wares.
In general, ancient Chinese kilns would be established in locations conforming to the following requirements:
1. Easy access to a clay mining site
2. Located in a wooded area, where firewood for the kilns could be obtained easily
3. Easy transport access (i.e., near a waterway, for transport by boat)
|Anhui||Fanchang, Huainan, Qiuzhou, Shouzhou, Sizhou, Suzhou, Xiao (Xiaoxian)|
|Fujian||Anxi, Chongan, Dehua, Fuqing, Guangze, Jian (Jianyang), Lianjiang, Minqing, Nanan, Futian, Pucheng, Quanzhou, Chongan, Tongan, Xianyou|
|Gansu||Ankou, Huating, Lanzhou|
|Guangdong||Chaoan, Chaozhou, Gaopi, Guang, Huiyang, Shiwan, Xicun|
|Guangxi||Rongxian, Tengxian, Yanguan (Xingan), Yongfu|
|Hebei||Cizhou (Cixian), Ding, Jiabicun, Jingxing, Quyang, Xing|
|Henan||Anyang, Bacun, Baofeng, Bianjingguan, Chai, Dangyangyu (Xiuwu), Dengfeng (Quhe), Deng (Neixiang), Dong, Hebi, Huangye (Gongxian), Jiaxian, Jun, Linru, Lushan (Duandian), Mixian (Xiguan), Ru, Xinan, Yiyang|
|Hunan||Changsha (Tongguan), Liling, Xiangyang, Yuezhou (Xiangyin)|
|Jiangsu||Junshan (Nanshan), Yixing|
|Jiangxi||Baihu, Baishe, Cuigong, Hongzhou (Fengcheng), Hugong, Hutian, Huo, Jizhou (Yonghe), Jingdezhen, Lang, Leping, Baishe (Nanfeng), Nian, Qilizhen (Ganzhou), Shufu, Tang, Tao, Xiong, Yutu, Yuchang (Yuqichang), Zang, Zhou, Yangmeiting (Shengmeiting), Zhen|
|Shanxi||Changzhi (Bayi), Datong, Huairen, Hunyuan, Huoxian, Jiaocheng, Jiexiu, Peng, Pingding, Puzhou, Yangcheng, Yuxian, Yuci|
|Shaanxi||Xunyi (Xunyi), Zhou|
|Sichuan||Dayi, Guangyuan, Liulichang (Huayang), Pengxian, Qingyanggong (Chengdu), Qiong, Xiba|
|Zhejiang||Cixi, Deqing (De), Dongyang, Ge, Huangyan, Jiangshan, Lishui, Linhai, Longquan (Di), Ningbo, Ou (Dongou), Shangyu, Shaoxing (Fusheng), Taishun, Tiedian, Wenzhou, Wuxing, Wuyi, Wuzhou, Xishan, Xiangshan, Xiaoshan, Xiuneisiguan (Nansongguan), Yinxian, Yuhang, Yue (Mise)|
|Neimeng||Gangwa (Chifeng), Liaoshangjing, Lindong|
Among the ancient Chinese kilns the Yue kiln was the first official or imperial kiln. (Five Dynasties period and Tang dynasty)
Chinese kiln types
Dragon kiln (aka snake kiln):
This type of ancient Chinese kiln is located on a slope, winding upward
like a dragon or snake (hence its name). During firing the heat would
rise from the lower to the upper end through the the kiln.
Example of a "live" dragon kiln in Yixing.
The protrusiona on the left and right of the 'ribs' are the firing holes. Other kiln types had often only one opening for firing.
Dragon kilns usually had a length of 40-60m, but the longest known is over 90m. Usually they were positioned on a slope.
Great egg-shaped kiln: The great kiln at Jingdezhen had a chamber about nine meters long and four meters high. It was egg shaped with the door at the smaller end.
Muffle kiln: Small kilns that could be placed anywhere on the ground, for firing larger quantities a number of such small kilns would have been in operation at the same time.