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Bilingual Ceramic Glossary of Damage and Condition Terms

Chinese-English glossary with English explanations

This bilingual ceramic glossary is intended to help collectors reading Chinese with the comparison of English and Chinese terms related to ceramic items.

Chinese English Description / Cause
磕,磕傷 chip piece chipped off 
hairline fine crack running from rim (glaze and body), caused by knocking
hairline, crack crack of either glaze or both glaze and body
開片 crackles caused by different expansion/contraction rates of clay and glaze
黏沙 adhering sand impurities from ash or sand in the kiln adhering to glaze, mostly at the base
斑點 spots, dots spots appearing in the glaze from mineral or other chemical elements
漏釉 missing glaze glaze material did not cover all parts before firing
磨釉, 傷釉 scratched, damaged glaze
惊釉 small crackles small-sized crackling caused by external conditions, etc.
釉泡 glaze bubbles develop during firing, open up under external force
剝釉 glaze peeling off glaze peeling off as it is not adhering firmly to body
縮釉 glaze contraction glaze contraction
炸釉 temperature cracks cracks caused by different expansion rates of clay body and glaze
爆釉 shallow spot of missing glaze shallow spot on surface (incl. decoration) missing glaze
磨口 ground mouth grinding of vessel mouth
脫釉 loss of glaze
磨底 ground bottom level grinding of bottom
截口 sawn mouth mouth of damaged vessel sawn off
蟑 螂咬 flea bites, rim fritting very small chipping
毛邊,毛口 mouth, rim missing glaze mouth with all glaze fallen off due to glaze damage
重皮 glaze unstable latent instability caused by knocking; although item still looks complete body and glaze are already separated; any touch can cause the glaze to fall off
棕眼 minute bubble holes minute holes from bubbles that burst in the kiln
傷彩 worn decoration wear or damage to color decoration
后加彩 newly painted decoration new decoration painted on old porcelain body
鑿傷 chiseled surface caused by excavation tools
失亮 dull glaze dull glaze due to item's long-term use
崩釉 natural crackles crackles developing naturally over long periods of time
軟道 miniscule scratching miniscule scratches from long time polishing
脫彩 loss of decoration ldecoration is gone due to long-term use or long interrement
窯傷 kiln damage
炸底 cracked bottom cracks in bottom glaze or going through the ceramic body, caused by knocking
水鏽 rust spots rust spots caused by water exposure in the soil (gray, yellow, iron red or verdigris colored chemicals adhere to surface)
磨款 mark ground off mark removal by grinding
土蝕 soil degradation
窯封,窯裂 glaze separation separation of glaze from the ceramic body in the kiln
窯粘 adhering material adhering of material because of two items touching in the kiln
窯縫 body split splitting of ceramic body in kiln
缺碴 missing fragment(s)
粘傷 glue repair repaired using glue
复燒,复窯 second firing
煙熏 smoking age faking method
配腿 repairing legs repairing or adding missing legs
翹棱 warping warping of ceramic body leads to a non-round mouth or uneven bottom
炸紋 cracks (incl. spider cracks) cracks on body caused by knocking
凸心 convex bottom bottom curved upwards
凹底 concave bottom a soft bottom curving down in the kiln; as a result the foot rim is higher than the bottom
串煙 smoking, oxidation in kiln smoking or oxidation caused by kiln fire leads to a transformation of part or all of the glaze: black, gray, yellow color
補釉 chip glazing and firing adding glaze to a chip and firing it
蕎麥地 miniscule black dots in glaze black dots in the glaze created from flying dust or ash in the kiln; impurities in the glaze covering a part or all
黃溢 impurities showing through glaze impurities in the clay showing through the thin glaze
假出土 fake excavation feigning an ancient item by first burying it and excavating it under the visitor's eyes
鑲嘴流 replaced spout
火石紅 red firing color reddish firing color of unglazed bottom
后作陽文款 later engraved mark w/glaze later engraved mark with glaze
后刻陰款 later engraved mark later engraved mark
糊米底 scorched bottom
火燒 altered appearance alterations caused by firing at a later time
鋦傷 staple repair old repair type using staples along the break line instead of glue
鋦,補釘 staple(s)
污水浸泡 unremovable staining black stained ceramic body caused by contact with dirty water

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